Development of new approach in microelectronics demands the solution of a number of problems in three main directions: development of the physical principles of functioning of electronic devices; synthesis of the new molecules capable to store, transfer and transform information; development of methods of the organization of molecules in supramolekulyarny ensemble or the molecular electronic device.
The mutual topography of BR of elements of secondary structure formed by a polypeptide chain after absorption by a molecule of chromophore of quantum of light changes therefore the channel of transmembrane transfer of protons is formed of cytoplasm in environment. However the molecular mechanism of svetozavisimy transport is still unknown.
Though theoretical bases moletronik are already rather well developed and created prototypes practically of all elements of logical schemes, however ways of real creation of the molecular computer are followed by considerable difficulties. Externally obvious possibility of use of separate molecules as logical elements of electronic devices is very problematic because of the specific properties of molecular systems and requirements imposed to logical elements.
Possibility of use of molecular materials and separate molecules as active elements of electronics draws attention of researchers of various areas of science for a long time. However only recently, when borders of potential opportunities of semiconductor technology became almost notable, interest in molecular ideology of creation of Basic Elements of electronics passed into the course of active and purposeful researches which became one of the most important and promising scientific and technical directions of electronics today.
First of all, James Tur by a special technique synthesized a molecular chain of links benzene-1,4-ditiolata 14 nanometers long. Groups which take electrons if the molecule is "energized" were entered into it. The most difficult problem with which it was also succeeded to cope, was that switching has to be reversible chemical process. For work of a molecule as the memorable element it is necessary to teach to capture her not simply electrons, and to hold them only during the set time. As a matter of fact, in it Read and Tur's main achievement with colleagues also consists.